Vegetable oils are part of the family of fats. Despite how you can imagine, the fat “does bad “, this connotation is not always true, especially in cases where fats are derived plant and perform, within the organism, important functions useful for the proper functioning of the body. In fact, there are high quality healthy fats that, for dogs, have a specific reason to be included in the diet, as they play an essential role in the health of our animals. First of all fats provide energy, almost twice the energy that carbohydrates and proteins can provide; these (ifnot necessary) are not consumed immediately but are deposited, constituting reserves of energy to be used as needed. They also play a crucial role in the construction and use of liposoluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K; are used for thermal insulation and provide a mechanical protection in the form of elastic bearings in the joints.
- LINSEED OIL – is an oil rich in omega 3 fatty acids, the famous “good Flax Oil fats”, essential ingredients for the diet of any pet. The omega 3 are important lipids for health, fundamental in the metabolic reactions and for proper cellular functioning. The omega 3, as well as the omega 6, are essential fatty acids, which are not produced independently by the body, but must be introduced through the diet. Among all foods, linseed oil is the one that contains the highest percentage: about 57% of the total, evenly balancing the presence of omega 3 and fatty acids omega 6 (1:4). It also contains other useful principles, such as: lignans (with strong antioxidant functions), vitamins of the B and E group, lecithin (substance essential for the regular functioning of the nervous system and brain), minerals, mucilage and soluble dietary fiber. Therefore integration of the diet with linseed oil favors its use as energy ready for use while performing its antioxidant activity.
- SOYBEAN OIL also rich in various important nutritional elements, such as: fatty acids polyunsaturated (as for linseed oil, especially omega 3 and omega 6, at different concentrations), vitamin B6 and vitamin E. Therefore, the integration of vegetable oils is important as the fatty acids they contain preside over important functions such as: energy source, absorption of vitamins, role in growth and development, maintaining a good state of health (including skin and coat) and modulation of the inflammatory response (antioxidant). Soybean oil is an excellent source of energy for sports animals and also for debilitated ones.
- L-CARNITINE – is important nutrient for animal health: it has the fundamental role of carrying essential fatty acids; without L-carnitine the fatty acids could not be transformed in energy, necessary for normal daily activities and for the correct functioning of the immune system, especially in the case of very active animals (role of energy source (“ready for use”). It is also used as a protector of joints and cardiovascular functions.
- TAURINE – is found as a free amino acid in animal tissues: meat, poultry, fish and shellfish are particularly rich. In most mammals it can be synthesized starting from methionine and cysteine but may be easily deficient in the diet. This possible lack leads to a series of alterations affecting the conjugation of bile acids with a consequent decrease in absorption of vitamins and fats (thus less absorption of an energy source); charged of the retina (central degeneration of the retina) with possible loss of sight and heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) with decreased muscular contractility and consequent heart insufficiency.
- L-LEUCINE – one of the essential branched amino acids, and must therefore be introduced through the diet as the body is unable to synthesize it. It is important for growth and muscle endurance (biosynthesizes proteins useful for physiological muscle well-being), stimulates protein synthesis, supports the metabolism and is a primary energy source in stress due to both efforts (work and sport) and consequent to pathologies.
- L-VALINE – is an indispensable component of protein biosynthesis and, together with leucine, essential for a correct energetic action, performing important functions for the “nourishment of the muscles. ” It can be used to produce energy from food, or in case you need to mobilize reserves endogenous proteins. It is also important for mental functions, muscle coordination and the like nerve functions.
- CREATINE – is chemically known as a non-protein nitrogen compound, that is, a compound containing nitrogen, but not a protein. It is involved in the supply of energy for muscles; intervenes by taking ADP and, reconverting it to ATP, can be used again for the energy production. Therefore, administering creatine increases the availability of usable energy at the muscular level. A high availability of creatine and ATP, prevents what is glycolysis (use of sugars as a source of energy), which results in the accumulation of lactic acid, nitrogenous waste and, more generally, it generates muscle fatigue. Creatine also promotes better use of proteins during muscle contraction, consequently increases in volume and density of the muscle mass.
Vitamins are bioregulators of great importance as they preside, along with other molecules, towards carrying out all the physiological processes, both directly and indirectly, through enzyme mechanisms. On the basis of solubility they are classified as fat-soluble, which dissolve in fats and water-soluble (they are not accumulated in the body, it is therefore essential to introduce them daily through the diet) that dissolve in water. All the vitamins are in charge of specific tasks and, lacking them, can cause fatigue or dysfunction.
- VITAMIN B6 B6 – pyridoxine, very common in foods, especially in wheat, in the by-products of milling, in animal meal and seed germs; before being used from the organism is converted into pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, fundamental constituents of two coenzymes.
They intervene in enzymatic reactions in which amino acid transformations take place and transfer of amino groups (transamination). It is also supposed to intervene in the production of antibodies in the blood and fat synthesis from amino acids. Indispensable for the correct functioning of the immune and nervous system. Pyridoxine is generally produced by intestinal microbiota, but this does not always occur in sufficient quantities to meet the needs; useful therefore an integration.
- VITAMIN B12 – cobalamin, absent in vegetables, is contained in liver extracts, in various foods of animal origin (fish meal, meat meal and whey) and is part of the APF complex (animal protein factor). It is the most important vitamin, essential for growth and hematopoiesis (formation of red blood cells, indispensable for oxygen distribution); is indispensable for the synthesis of nucleic acids intervening in the protein metabolism of the synthesis of choline and methionine and, in particular, in the lipid and glucidic one, catalyzing different enzymatic reactions. It is therefore necessary for the metabolism of proteins, for the good functioning of the nervous system, for mucosal regeneration but above all it is considered a natural energy for all cells.
- NIACIN – vitamin PP or vitamin B3, is present in herbs, hay and constituents of feed concentrates (bran, flour, etc.). Vitamin that becomes part of the CoA molecule that performs the transportation of acyl groups in ß-oxidation reactions of fatty acids, in synthesis reactions of fatty acids and oxidation of pyruvic acid. Moreover, it determine the acetylation of choline which, in the form of acetylcholine, constitutes the chemical mediator in the transmission of nerve impulses at the level of synapses between neurons. It is therefore a vitamin that inhibits protein and lipid oxidation, consequently decreasing the production of free radicals.
- PANTOTHENIC ACID – hydrosoluble vitamin (also vit B5 or Calcium D- Pantothenate) present in almost all vegetable and animal foods, in more or less abundant quantities. Foods rich in vitamin B5 they are legumes and offal, but also egg yolk, dried mushrooms and brewer’s yeast. Such as coenzyme, participates precisely in the constitution of enzymes that catalyze various metabolism reactions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Promotes the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, carrying out a trophic action; has therefore the function of supporting the nervous system, growth, development and to prevent states of fatigue.
Microelements are essential for animal nutrition; important aspect is that they cannot be synthesized (unlike other nutritive principles) by the animal and therefore must be present in the ration in quantities sufficient to meet the needs. They are protective principles as they take on a role predominant in the control of animal metabolism as constituents of the prosteicgroup of numerous enzymes. Moreover, some of them perform functions of enzyme activators and enter the genesis of hormones and vitamins.
- IRON – one of the most important trace elements. About 60-70% is contained in hemoglobin, but discrete quantities are contained in myoglobin and in reserve organs such as the liver, spleen and marrow bone. Its absorption occurs almost entirely in the duodenum; conjugates in the intestinal epithelium to a protein structure forming a chromoprotein called ferritin. Iron is linked to the transport of oxygen becoming part of hemoglobin (heme) and cytochromes and intervenes in the formation of the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase. It therefore favors the formation of red blood cells ensuring one correct oxygenation to all tissues, thus favoring a physiological and correct functionality of all body systems (for example: proper oxygenation in the muscles, favors one contraction of the so-called “aerobic” muscle mass, avoiding fatigue during efforts continuous due to the accumulation of substances such as lactic acid); stimulates the functions of the liver, has a role also in resistance to diseases and is essential to keep the immune system efficient. It is also important to prevent the lack of cellular enzymes, which are essential for the life of the cells and energy production.
Nowadays, herbs and officinal plants are used to preserve the well-being of humans and animals; they can be used as they are in the kitchen, like spices; in the preparation of herbal teas, or work with specific procedures for the production of food supplements, veterinary products, cosmetics and other products. For each officinal plant, the part used (leaves, flowers, seeds, bark, roots etc.) is called “drug”. There drug contains the phytocomplex, ie the set of active ingredients that characterize the properties of vegetable, not reproducible by chemical synthesis. The synergistic work of the active ingredients of the phytocomplexguarantees the plant a series of contemporary actions, which the individual component does not possess.
- MACA – maca (Lepidium meyeni) is a plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Also known by the name of ginseng from the Andes, its roots contain the most important nutrients, essential for the body. Rich in essential amino acids (such as isoleucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, threonine, phenylalanine; which represent about 10%), mineral salts (iron, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorus), vitamins, carbohydrates, fatty acids and fibers ; the plant represents a complete natural product in its composition. Thanks to these constituents, it improves the response to stress, fatigue and endurance. These invigorating and energizing properties are attributable to its action on glycogenesis (production of glucose from energy reserves) in case of physical activity. The presence of amino acids, important for muscle functions, support muscle mass, indicating it as a supplement in activities with high energy consumption and muscle effort. Rich in vitamins A, C and B complex, calcium, iron and zinc, it also has a beneficial effect on the nervous system.
- ALFALFA – Medicago sativa, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) family originating in Asia Minor; also called Erba Spagna or also Alfalfa. Traditionally used as a tonic as it naturally contains several useful nutrients. For example, having very deep roots (even up to 15 meters), it reaches and assimilates minerals that other plants are unable to absorb. In addition, it contains various digestive enzymes (useful for digestion and the consequent assimilation of nutrients), phytoestrogens, different flavonoids (with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action), glucosides, alkaloids, amino acids, vitamins A, C, D, E and K, mineral salts and appreciable quantities of chlorophyll. The plant is therefore used in cases of tiredness and weakness both due to convalescence and periods of stress or sports and / or work efforts. Also useful in cases where it is necessary to integrate those nutrients that the plant extract can boast of having.