CAROB FLOUR: The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is an evergreen tree belonging to the Leguminous family that grows in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high sugar content, the carob pod is rich in insoluble fiber and microconstituents, including phenolic compounds, inositols (mainly d-pinitol), and vitamins. (Aristea Gioxari 1, 2022)
YANG®: It is a mixture of inactivated yeasts specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as brewer’s yeast) and Cyberlindnera jadinii.
Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic organisms that belong to the kingdom of fungi.
Brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in particular is used in the diet of animals for its nutritional power, being rich in precious macronutrients such as proteins, but also trace elements such as selenium and chromium, group B vitamins and many other health-promoting substances.
These actions are to be attributed above all to the richness in these nutrients.
Cyberlindnera jadinii is also a yeast widely used for its nutritional power, being also rich in proteins and vitamins.
PSYLLIUM (PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM) CUTICLE SEEDS POWDER
Psyllium is an annual herbaceous plant that grows spontaneously in the Mediterranean area. The seed of this plant is used, mainly the cuticle or peel, which is particularly rich in fibre.
Dietary fiber is known to help normalize colonic motility and transit time, supporting normal growth of gastrointestinal tract microflora and providing fuel for colonocytes. (J.C. Alves1, 2021)
It is also known that the intake of soluble fibers through the normal diet improves the consistency of the faeces as these fibers have a high capacity to attract water into the intestinal lumen, forming a gel in contact with it. Soluble fibers can also influence the constitution of the intestinal microflora and the surface of the colon, increasing the absorption capacity. The microflora can also ferment this type of fiber producing volatile fatty acids that promote the regeneration of colonocytes by improving the recovery phase from diarrhea. (Wakshlag J, 2011)
Psyllium husk is a source of mixed fibers, i.e. both soluble and insoluble, and it is for this reason that it is widely used in the supplementary feeding of pets in order above all to obtain a beneficial effect on the intestine.
RED ELM BARK POWDER (ULMUS RUBRA)
Red elm (Ulmus rubra) is a tree that grows in the central and eastern regions of the United States. It is traditionally used by Native Americans for its beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract, due to the soothing action of the typical mucilaginous exudate of its bark.
Zinc is a pro-antioxidant micronutrient essential for the growth, development and maintenance of the immune system. In the gastrointestinal system, zinc plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier and brush border enzymatic activity of enterocytes and shows a direct effect on ion channels. Studies on animal models have shown that chronic zinc deficiency alters the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, considering the multiple biological functions of zinc in the gastrointestinal tract, its administration in diarrheal episodes is relevant. (Muheet, 2018)
Pectin is a dietary fiber, one of the most important components of a diet. Pectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of soluble dietary fibers high in galacturonic acid (Gala). They have a broad spectrum of action especially on the gastrointestinal tract. Thanks to their emulsifying and gelling properties, they are widely used in the food industry as stabilizers and gelling agents. From a health point of view they show antioxidant, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, cholesterol-lowering, hypoglycaemic, prebiotic and other activities, which provide a promising basis for a wide range of functional foods.
BENTONITE – MONTMORILLONITE
Bentonite is a particular type of phyllosilicate clay with absorbent properties. It takes its name from Fort Benton, Wyoming, where its major sources are located. It is also known as Montmorillonite clay, this name derives from the region of France called Montmorillon, where it was first found. In contact with water it forms a paste which has been used since ancient times and in many cultures, both for external and internal use, to keep the body healthy.
Bentonite has been shown to possess purifying properties, properties due to its polycationic chemical nature, which leads to the absorption of negatively charged toxins. Furthermore, some studies suggest that bentonite clay may aid nutrient absorption by increasing the activity of the intestinal flora. (Alessia Candellone 1, 2020)
QUEBRACHO CONDENSED TANNINS EXTRACT
Tannins are a class of chemical compounds produced by different types of plants, in order to protect themselves from external aggressions. In fact, their bitter and astringent taste keeps away the animals that try to feed on the plant and its fruits.
Tannins are divided into two categories:
1) Condensed tannins: Oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols, also called proanthocyanidins because by hot acid hydrolysis they release an anthocyanidin, from which they take their specific name;
2) Hydrolysable tannins: made up of a sugar, generally glucose, esterified with ellagic acid or gallic acid from which they take the names of ellagitannins and gallotannins respectively.
They are known for their antioxidant properties, but some studies have shown that they also have a cytoprotective action on intestinal epithelial cells and an inhibitory effect on the growth of intestinal E. Coli. (Serena Reggiy, 2020)
During acute diarrhea, water is the most important nutrient due to potential dehydration due to excessive fluid and electrolyte losses. For this reason it is very important to make plenty of water available to the animal, for the recovery of lost liquids.
Equally important becomes the integration, at high concentrations, of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Electrolytes are in fact important regulators of water balance, managing the flow of liquids to and from the cells. Lactoadapt STOP contains sodium chloride, potassium chloride and potassium phosphate to ensure the supplementation of these electrolytes.
The addition of DEXTROSE, more commonly known as glucose, completes the product profile.
Dextrose is a simple sugar and therefore a highly digestible carbohydrate. It is useful during acute diarrhea due to its energizing and invigorating action.