- GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE – from a chemical point of view, glucosamine is an aminomonosaccharide or a monosaccharide characterized by the replacement of a hydroxy functional group with an amino functional group. Glucosamine is one of the main precursors of glycoproteins, in particular of proteoglycans, macromolecules consisting of a central protein structure (core) to which structures of disaccharides or glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are covalently linked, i.e. long, unbranched chains consisting of repetitive units disaccharides alternating with aminosaccharides. All GAGs contain glucosamine derivatives.
Proteoglycans are the main constituents of the extracellular matrix of bone and cartilage connective tissue and are linked by non-covalent bonds to long chains of hyaluronic acid, chemically also a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Within these huge aggregates of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, proteins such as collagen, elastin and fibronectin are also found in the matrix, making the matrix itself more resistant.
Glucosamine therefore plays a very important role in the structure of these tissues and therefore its administration in growing dogs can be useful for normal development of bones and joints.
- CHONDROTIN SULFATE – chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminglycan (GAG), which in the form of proteoglycans is therefore also a very important constituent of the extracellular matrix of bone and cartilage connective tissue.
The administration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to puppies can therefore be useful for strengthening and chondroprotection of bone and cartilage structures.
- EQUISETUM ARVENSE – this plant, also known as “horsetail” is particularly rich in silica, both in the stem and in the leaves.
A good silica content is found in whole grains, seafood (crustaceans), many vegetables (onion, shallot, strawberry, peas, drinking water and some mineral waters).
Over the past decade, some studies have recognized silicon as a trace element that plays an important role in connective tissue, especially bone and cartilage. Some bone and cartilage abnormalities have been associated with a decrease in the components of the matrix highlighting that the need for silicon in the formation of collagen and GAGs is an important requirement. The main effect of silicon in bone and cartilage is on the organic matrix (represented by collagen fibers) immersed in the amorphous substance of proteoglycans and GAGs. The organic matrix of the bone appears to be more severely affected by silicon deficiency than the mineralization process. Further support for the metabolic role of silicon in connective tissue is provided by the discovery that silicon is a main ion of osteogenic cells and is present in particularly high concentrations in the metabolically active state of the cell; furthermore, silicon reaches relatively high levels in the mitochondria of these cells.
Deficient states of this element have shown, in animal models, a defective formation of the joints, a deficient endochondrial growth, defects in the articular cartilage. Eqisetum for its content of silicic acid can be useful therefore useful for supporting the functionality of bones and cartilages.
- PROTEIN FEEDING OF ANIMALS – food continuously produces acidic waste and the body does its best to eliminate them. It is known that a diet rich in proteins, especially animal ones and to a lesser extent those of vegetable origin, leads to the formation of many acid waste, but the organism is able to balance (neutralize) the excess acid substances by triggering various mechanisms . However, if it does not have sufficient alkaline supply (bicarbonates), it cannot neutralize these acids 100%. In this situation, the bone represents a fundamental reserve of minerals, which the body draws from. This in the long run leads to an impoverishment of its mass by weakening it (weakening of the bone).
The quantity of calcium contained in a food is not so important as the property of not removing calcium from the body.
Therefore it is important to always feed a balanced diet in nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
- LAMINARIA DIGITATA – laminaria digitata is an algae source of various nutrients, such as Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Iodine and offers all the benefits of these substances taken in natural and non-synthetic form. The calcium contained in algae is an excellent food for puppies.
- SPIRULINA MAXIMA – it is also an alga – Algae in general, in particular their walls, are rich in polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Spirulina is known for its purifying properties due to the polysaccharide component and for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic acids, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene.
- PERNA CANALICULUS – commonly known as green mussel, is a New Zealand green mussel. Some recent studies have shown that this food can be particularly beneficial for joint health. This property is attributed to a series of nutrients, but in particular, it seems to be mainly due to the presence of eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega 3 series. – perna canaliculus has a mineral content similar to that of humans; it contains a high percentage of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosaminglycans (glucosamine), lipids and, as already mentioned, minerals.
- VITAMIN C – is a vitamin with antioxidant action that contributes to the formation of native collagen.
- VITAMIN E – antioxidant effect.
- SELENIUM – mineral supporting the normal function of the immune system and useful for protecting cells from oxidative stress.
- FISH OIL – Enhanced formula with the addition of FISH OIL.
Contains fish oil, a well-known source of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega 3 series. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are molecules consisting of a carbon chain with a final carboxylic group and a final methyl group. The carbon chain has both simple and double bonds, i.e. unsaturated portions.
Omega 3 fatty acids, as well as omega 6, are defined as essential fatty acids since the body is not able to synthesize them and therefore these nutrients must necessarily be taken with the diet. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular EPA and DHA, have been recognized as having known health properties, first of all the beneficial action at the level of heart function, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels.