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November 5, 2022

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthrosis or arthritis or osteoarthritis is a DEGENERATIVE DISEASE, that affects  the JOINTS.

In veterinary medicine it is also known as Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD).

It is a PROGRESSIVE AND IRREVERSIBLE PATHOLOGY, characterized by degeneration of joint cartilages, changes in the subchondral bone, formation of osteophytes and inflammation and fibrosis of the joint capsule.

Rentgenska slika: desno kolk normalen, levi kolk z hudo artrozo (glej puščice)

Radiography:right hip normal, left hip with severe arthrosis (arrows)

From the study of some dinosaur bones it was possible to ascertain that these animals already suffered from arthrosis. In human and veterinary pathology osteoarthritis or osteoarthrosis or DJD is an extremely common disease. Research conducted recently (Pfizer Animal Health) shows that 20% of dogs older than one year is affected by the symptomatologically and / or radiologically manifested.

 

Osteoarthritis is the third cause of drug use in dogs.

 

Simplifying we can say that three situations are the cause of osteoarthrosis:

  • 1) an abnormal force acting on a normal joint when there has been a fracture, a joint dislocation or a rupture of the articular ligaments.
  • 2) a normal force acting on an abnormal joint as in the case of hip dysplasia, or dysplasia of elbow or knee or shoulder or in case of joint misalignments.
  • 3) joint infections

 

The main orthopedic diseases that produces osteoarthritis are:

  • SHOULDER: osteochondritis dissecans
  • ELBOW: dysplasia and congenital dislocation
  • CARPUS: angular deviations (valgus, varism, hyperflexory syndrome)
  • HIP: dysplasia
  • KNEE: osteochondritis, patella luxation, genu valgus
  • TARSUS: osteochondritis and angular defects
  • HAND AND FOOT: sesamoid defects

 

The MAIN SYMPTOM OF OSTEOARTHROSIS is the pain that is characterized by LIMP, even if often and especially at the beginning of the disease it can only be evidenced by a BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION. The pain is generated by a cell that is found in the synovial membrane: this cell is the mast cell, that in the case of joint arthrosis releases two substances histamine and cytokines that bring the painful signal to the brain.

Initially pain manifests itself only when the joint or the joints are very stressed. In the more advanced stages it manifests itself “at cold”, it can decrease during movement and reappear after intense physical exercise.

The dog with arthritic pain REDUCES ITS ACTIVITY, moves less and less, sits frequently and is no longer interested in family activities, often changes mood with more irritability and sometimes with increased aggression. The reduction of physical activity results in a REDUCTION IN MUSCLE MASS AND TONE and a consequent increase in the MECHANICAL STRESS OF THE LIGAMENTS AND JOINTS and an INCREASE IN THE BODY WEIGHT of the subject. Overweight is a very important risk factor in this condition.

All dog breeds can be affected by osteoarthritis, but medium to large breeds are more affected.

The diagnosis is fundamentally based both on the clinical evaluation of the symptomatology and on the radiographic examination which also allows a staging of the disease as well as a possible prognosis. In the advanced phases a remodeling of the articular margins is observed with osteophyte formations (osteocartilagineous newformations) which are formed over time to widen the articular plate and give greater stability to the articulation.

In some specific cases, more specialized investigations such as arthroscopy, CT scan and Magnetic Resonance are required. Examination of synovial fluid may be useful for differentiating osteoarthritis from inflammatory arthropathies (septic arthritis and immune-mediated arthritis).

AN EARLY DIAGNOSIS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT IN ORDER TO SET THE BEST THERAPEUTIC PROTOCOL THAT WILL LAST OVER TIME.

The main purpose of the therapy is the relief of pain and the control of the inflammation that is obtained by following different paths: the reduction of body weight, the control of physical exercise, the medical treatment, nutritional  supplements, physiotherapy and eventually the surgical treatment.

 

Active substances contained in DogoMaxy® can improve the health of the animal’s cartilages and tendons. DogoMaxy® contains substances that can slow down or counteract the degeneration of articular cartilage and unlike NSAIDs (nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs) can be used for very long periods of time as well as throughout the life of the animal without any contraindication.

 

Brief summary of the substances contained in DogoMaxy®:

GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN SULFATE

 

It is called glucosamine sulfate and is the result of Italian research, the substance that has demonstrated – for the first time in the world – to stop the progression of osteoarthritis: a degenerative joint disease. Glucosamine allows to stop the ‘wear’ process of the joints in  the elderly dogs and in the dogs who practice sports.

Normally in the body, glucosamine is present in the joints, synovial fluid, tendons, ligaments and muscles and is synthesized by glucose but in arthritis a metabolic defect occurs in its biosynthesis.

 

In this situation, the exogenous intake of glucosamine sulphate substitutes the deficiency of that, normally produced by the body.

 

The administration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to the puppies and to large breed or older dogs,  determines after absorbing action, reinforcement and chondroprotection of bone and cartilaginous structures.

Glucosamine in food supplements is obtained by hydrolysis of chitin derived from the shells of certain crustaceans (marine exoskeletons). Glucosamine is the basic component, that with hyaluronic acid intervenes in the constuction of new cartilage.

 

Chondroitin sulfate belongs to a family of heteropolysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans or GAGs.

In the form of proteoglycans they form the basic substance of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. Chondroitin sulfate is formed by repetitive linear units consisting of N-acetylgalactosamine and D-glucuronic acid. Chondroitin sulfate is found in the cartilage.

The activity of chondroitin sulfate, especially in combination with glucosamine, can promote and maintain the structure of cartilage (chondroprotection).

 

In particular:

  • stimulates the synthesis of collagen, which is the main protein found in cartilage;
  • It helps to reduce the activity of enzymes that can accidentally destroy what remains of healthy tissue in a worn out joint;
  • It draws water into the cartilage tissue. Articular cartilage is not supplied by blood but by the synovial fluid, that is essential to nourish and lubricate the joints. The effect of the cartilage pillow is due in fact to the moisture content.

 

Glucosamine and Chondroitin sulphate supplementation in animals that are predisposed to cartilage wear (but also in humans) is recognized as adequate therapy as in prevention and as in the presence of symptoms such as limping or stiffening of the joints.

The pain caused by the loss of cartilage in the joints can be treated with natural substances, that have long been subject to in-depth studies avoiding long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

 

ProTriXan® blend for exclusive use in DOGOteka Veterinary line, brings together in a balanced and synergistic form, naturally derived components, extensively studied and validated by international scientific literature.

  • Garcinia mangostana L. e.s. phytocomplex standardized in polyphenols

                    extract from the whole plant

  • Garcinia mangostana L . standardized in xanthones α and γ

                     extract from the fruit pericarp

  • Curcuma longa L. titrated in curcumin

 

 

WHY ProTriXan®?

BECAUSE THE MULTI-TARGET THERAPY HAS A HIGHER ACTIVITY THAN THE ADMINISTRATION OF A SINGLE COMPONENT IN DEGENERATIVE DISEASES,  ACTIVATING AND SUPPORTING MULTIPLE CELLULAR TARGETS.

 

 

Effect of Garcinia Mangostana on cellular oxidation and inflammatory process

Garcinia Mangostana is a typical fruit of various areas of SouthEastern Asia. In the late 90s scientists isolated Xantons from the fruit of Mangosteen. The class of xanthones, polyphenols derived from Benzo-y-pyrone, possesses many pharmacological properties. The most interesting are the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory power of alpha and gamma mangosteen.

Based on the antioxidant evidence of the fruit, some researchers carried out studies in which the activity of the gamma mangosteen was examined, one of the xanthones present in the fruit, on the cascade of arachidonic acid. The ability of the Gamma Mangosteen  to inhibit COX1 and COX2 in dependent concentration mode was highlighted,  with a mechanism of action based on the selective inhibition of COXs in a competitive manner.

 

Garcinia mangostana acts as a joint protector with control of inflammation and joint pain.

 

Devil’s Claw (Arpagophytum procumbens DC) is also a plant to which are attributed proven pharmacological activities, which are in   such as in Garcinia mangostana, in improving joint function and control of inflammation and pain associated with it. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of Garcinia Mangostana because it has the ability to intervene in the cascade of arachidonic acid. Devil’s Claw contains phytosterols, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids. For its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity is called natural cortisone.

 

Curcuma longa l. Tit. In curcumin

Turmeric is a natural anti-inflammatory. Administered as a nutritional supplement, turmeric demonstrates pharmacological activity used in cartilage degeneration and rheumatoid arthritis.

 

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT Many studies have shown that turmeric  may be comparable to conventional and potent anti-inflammatory drugs such as hydrocortisone and phenylbutazone. But unlike these,  does not have toxic side effects.

 

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ARTHRITIS Studies on turmeric  have shown that this powerful anti-inflammatory drug can reduce the symptoms associated with rheumatoid arthritis: turmeric is a powerful antioxidant, antioxidants neutralize free radicals that cause painful inflammation and damage to joints affected by arthritis. This is quite significant for older animals who may experience pain associated with arthritis and aging.

 

“Curcuma-Turmeric is one of the most powerful natural anti-inflammatory drugs available” Dr Randy J. Horwitz – Arizona Center Medical Director 2006

  

BIOCELL COLLAGEN®

It is a mixer of protein substances: hydrolysed collagen of type II, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, essential amino acids.

Collagen, the main protein of our tissues, is essential for structuring the joints, tendons and ligaments. Hyaluronic acid is fluidizing / moisturizing, essential for lubricating the joints.

 

Type II ° collagen is the most common type of collagen found in articular cartilage and represents 80-90% of total collagen content.

 

Biocell collagen contains hydrolysed collagen, obtained through a patented technology that allows to extract a high percentage of collagen II, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, essential components of the body structure.

This hydrolysed collagen is made up of a molecular structure that allows a quick assimilation and favors more pronounced tissue regenerative processes.

 

SELENIUM prevents osteoarticular aging.

VITAMINS E and C are antioxidants. Vitamin C promotes the formation of native collagen.

 

Bibliografija:

Lih-Geen Chen, Ling-Ling Yang, Ching-Chiung Wang; “Anti-infammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana” Food and Chemical Toxicolgy; 46: 688-693, 2008

Keigo Nakatani, Masanori Atsumi, Tsutomu Arakawa, Kenji Oosawa, Susumu Shimura, Norimichi Nakahata and Yasushi Ohizumi; “Inibitions of Histamine Release and Prostaglandin E2 Syntesis by Mangosteen, a Thai Medicinal Plant” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bullettin; 25(9): 1137-1141, 2002)

José Pedraza-Chaverri, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Jazmin M. Pérez-Rojas;“Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)” Food and Chemical Toxicology, in press; doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.024, 2008

Yoshikawa M., Harada E., Miki A., Tsukamoto K., Si Qian L., Yamahara J., Murakami N. 1994. Antioxidant constituents from the fruit hulls of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) originatin in Vietnam. Yakugaku Zasshi 114, 129-133

 

Copyright: Dogoteka

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