FREE SHIPPING over 150 EUR
September 6, 2022

Determination of the right moment for mating

In the last 15 years, cynology and therefore canine breeding have developed considerably, have become more professional and therefore reproduction has become more important.

 

Due to the growing demand for veterinary services in the field of fertility, many veterinarians began to deal more closely with defining of the most appropriate time for mating. In fact, the reproductive failures are for the most part due to an error in choosing the date of the coupling rather than to a male or female infertility.
This concept is even more important nowadays, if we consider that often the females find the male suitable for breeding hundreds or sometimes thousands of kilometers away and that sometimes they have the possibility to carry out only one mating.
The old scheme in which it is described that the female is fertilizable on the 12th -13th day from the beginning of the heat, often turns out to be inaccurate as well as relying on the female’s estrous behavior or the appearance changes of vaginal discharge.

The time of ovulation varies from bitch to bitch.
The success of the coupling depends on recognizing the moment of ovulation.

The vet who deals with breeding problems has two methods to determine the ovulatory day of the female:

  1. cytological examination of exfoliated vaginal cells (vaginal smears)
  2. determination of serum progesterone levels

Vaginal smears are easy to perform and inexpensive. The examination consists in the observation of slide under a microscope, on which the cells of the vaginal wall are swiped with a tampon and in the evaluation of their corneification.

The estral cycles in female consist of four periods:

PROESTRUS: begins with the loss of the first drops of blood and ends the first day when the female accepts the male. On average it lasts for 9 days (3 days – 17 days). The female attracts the males but if they approach them she repels them. Vaginal losses are bright red. From the cytological point of view the slide shows round or oval cells with large nuclei and numerous red blood cells are present.

OESTRUS: begins the first day when the female accepts the male and ends the first day she refuses him. On average it lasts 9 days (3 days – 21 days). The female accepts the male, arches the back, diverts the tail to the side and remains still when the male tries to mount it. Losses progressively decrease and go from red to pink. Ovulation occurs during estrus but with the pathological examination (slide) the moment can only be assumed. Mycologically the red blood cells diminish or disappear and the epithelial cells become corneified and lose the nucleus.
Only cornified epithelial cells are visible at the apex of the estrous phase.

But the appearance of the maximum corneification of the vaginal cells varies from one bitch to the other and can have an oscillation even a few days compared to ovulation. Therefore, the cytological examination of vaginal epithelium alone is not an accurate index of the ovulation of the bitch but it remains an important method to evaluate the progression of the estrous cycle and to determine the most suitable moment to start the measurement of serum progesterone.

DIESTRUS: begins the first day when the female refuses the male again and ends after about 9 weeks. At this point some bitches manifest the so-called hysterical or imaginary (false) pregnancy.

ANESTRUS: it’s the period of pause between one heat and the other.

Determination of serum progesterone levels

If the phytocithological smear (slide) shows us the approach to the fertile period in the bitch, allowing us not to make progesterone evaluations too early or too late, the evaluation of plasma progesterone allows us to identify the exact period in which to perform the mating. It is a very simple test and consists in evaluating the progesterone dosage (in nanograms -ng) contained in a blood sample of the affected female.

Ovulation occurs when progesterone reaches a level of 7-8 nanograms / ml. Once the ovulatory moment has been established, it is necessary to wait for the mating 36-48 hours, that the eggs pass from the ovaries to the Fallopian tubes (where the meeting with the spermatozoa takes place) and undergo the first meiotic division and therefore be fertilizable.
The increase of progesterone is not regular.

Its baseline value is 0.5 ng / ml.
It is therefore advisable to do at least two or more evaluations of the progesterone to identify the exact moment of ovulation.

Let’s take a few examples:

  • if progesterone is 7-8 ng / ml we will mate after 36-48 hours,
  • if the progesterone is 10-12 ng / ml we will mate after 24 hours,
  • if the progesterone is 18 -20 ng / ml we will perform the mating during the day.

PROGESTERONE AND DELIVERY

The determination of the blood levels of progesterone is a fundamental help also for the determination of the time of delivery.

The best method to establish the date of delivery is to calculate 63 days (+/- 1) from the date of ovulation (see above).

This date can also be confirmed by the measurements of progesterone carried out in the last days of pregnancy: in the days preceding delivery there is a drastic decrease in the levels of blood progesterone which decreases to levels of> 2 ng / ml few hours before delivery.

Share

Library of knowledge

Microbiota and correlations with the immune system and skin
Articles Uncategorized

Microbiota and correlations with the immune system and skin

The skin is the largest organ in the body. YES the skin is a real organ! Although some dermatological diseases affect only the skin, many others are the manifestation of a systemic disorder.   What is the skin microbiota? The term skin microbiota refers to the set of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeasts) that live on the skin’s surface. The microbiota plays an important functional role in the skin barrier, which acts as protection against external agents (physical barrier and immunological […]

Good digestion affects the health and functioning of the entire organism
Articles

Good digestion affects the health and functioning of the entire organism

Nutrition is essential for the health of the animal. Suitable foods should be introduced through food: what is physiological for the animal’s body. These foods are broken down  into micronutrients through the process of digestion where the food is digested into smaller molecules that the body can absorb and use. Digestion, in addition to being  a very important process, is also a process that constantly occurs in the animal’s body. Good digestion is important: to nourish the cells with all the necessary […]

Malassezia
Articles

Malassezia

What is malassezia? Malassezia is a yeast that is part of the normal canine skin microbiota, so it is normally present on the skin of dogs and cats. In particular, Malassezia resides in wet areas such as: • ear canal • space between the fingers • skin folds • the genitals • the armpits This pathogen coexists with its host and in healthy animals it does not cause problems as long as the skin microbiota is in balance. When this […]

Where to buy?

Find store

CRAZY TAIL DI GALLEANI SERENA

CASCINA SANT'ULIANA SP 206, SNC

Veterinarska ambulanta Buba

Rožna Dolina 5, Grosuplje

Veterinarska ambulanta Buba

Ljubljanska cesta 27, Novo mesto

Šaleška veterina

Cesta talcev 35, 3320 Velenje

ForDog, Aleš Lahajnar s.p.

Gmajnice 28a, 1000 Ljubljana

Popi, pasji salon

Rožna Dolina, cesta V 19, 1000 Ljubljana

Doget - Miklošičeva

Miklošičeva cesta 38, 1101 Ljubljana

Doget - Murgle

Cesta v Mestni log 55, 1102 Ljubljana

Doget - Vrhnika

Stara cesta 2, 1360 Vrhnika

Tinkula, Neja Pengal s.p.

Stritarjeva ulica 26, 1230 Domžale

Dogoteka Italia

Via San Michele 18 04011 Aprilia (LT)

Futterglück H&S Handelsvertretung

Maximilian Haller Straße 16/5 72488 Sigmaringen

Dogoteka Poland

Ulica Klonowa 15 44-160 Rudziniec

Vet Home, dr.Talpag Bálint

Fő u. 55 Pilisvörösvár 2085

Ing. Katarína Čerešňáková - For Pets

Bojná 692 956 01 Bojna

Compagnie De Distribution De Marchandise

05 BP 2150, ABIDJAN 05

LITVA, LATVIJA, ESTONIJA Kleewiesenhof HPZ

Kleewiesenhof 1 54570 Betteldorf

KINCOS - Alimentos e Companhia, Lda.

Rua de Sedouros, 161 4580-201 Paredes

Healthy Dog, Jana Trepacova

Zahradna 22/C Dunajska luzna 90042

Linda Näslund

Överbyn 235 834 98 Brunflo

Le Clebs

1430 Rebecq Belgium

HRVAŠKA M.A.I.R. d.o.o., Pet shop Šape

Gospodska 26 10090 Zagreb

MALTA All for pets Market

69 st Paul's street Naxxar

ITALIJA Clinica Vescovio Veterinaria

Via Moricone, 20 (P.zza Vescovio) 00199 Roma

Andriana Solomonides (MY BEST FRIEND)

Eleftherias Avenue,73 Aradippo 7102 Larnaca

VESCOVIO VETERINARIA DEL DR. PETRELLA L.-DR.DAMIA F.

VIA MORICONE, 20 00199 ROMA (RM)

CINGVLVM PET SERVICES DI CONTI IRENE

Via San Esuperanzio, 62011 Cingoli, MC, Italija

GEA PET SHOP DI SAIANI ANGELA

Via Lecco 30, 20864 AGRATE BRIANZA (MB)

Mario Castelli (Barfbones)

Via Vingone 152 50013 Campi Bisenzio (FI)

Allevamento Chiaromantello di Sabrina Bottigelli

Via speranza 53b 21052 Busto Arsizio (VA)

Clinica Veterinaria Città di Fermo dr. CIRIBE' FRANCESCO

via Falcone snc 63900 Fermo (FM)

Ambulatorio Veterinario Dott. Galleani

Via Roma, 36, 20085 Locate di Triulzi MI, Italy

THEA MEDICA s.r.o.

Pustiměřské Prusy 249, Pustiměř 68321

Dott. Carlotta Caminiti

Via Novara 4e, 28010 Agrate Conturbia (NO)

LOVELY PET BOUTIQUE DI ELISA DE ANGELI

VICOLO SANT'AGOSTINO, 1/F-G, 18039 VENTIMIGLIA (IM)

SARL Lemaire

1, les Brumales, 36190 Saint Plantaire - FR

RURI VIVIS DI PINARELLI MASSIMO & C. S.A.S.

VIA TOMMASO SALSA, 71, 31030 CARBONERA (TV)

Pawsome

Via Levà 61, 36013 piovene Rocchette (VI)

Sudbina Svitlana

Kiyv, Ukraine

L'Arca Di Noe' Di Pucci Milena

Via Ceccaroni, 1, 62019 Recanati MC, Italia

Toelettatura L'officina di pedro

Via Eugenio Montale, 55031 Camporgiano LU

Encantado Tour, s.r.o

Dany Medřické, 190 15 Praha-Satalice, Czechia

Edil Presicce S.N.C.

Via Ignazio Veris, 47, 73020 Scorrano

Cindy Helms

DAP De Wolvenlus, Vleminkstraat 94, 3201 Langdorp, Belgija

Pet Shop Šape

Kninski trg 18, 10000 Zagreb, Hrvaška

MY BEST FRIEND

Panteli Dervou 3C, Koropi, 19400 Athens, Greece

Azienda agricola Gamecastle Ranch

Via Mottava, 21021 Angera VA, Italia

BELLI & BULLI Pet Store e Toeletta

Via Antonazzo Romano, 3, 00196 Roma RM, Italy

Horse&Dog Specialist di Annalisa Buffone

Via Giampaolo Angeloni 6, 06034 Foligno (PG) Italia

Žalioji banga, UAB

Blindžių g. 5, Ilgakiemio k., LT-53288 Kauno

Dostop Plus d.o.o.

Preloge 2c, 2316 Zgornja Ložnica

S.C. Sara Dog S.R.L.

Str. Pancota Nr.9, Bucuresti, Sector 2,

To provide you with the best user experience, we use cookies on our website. You can find out more about which cookies we use and their settings here.